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Walking is often spoken of in the context of “alternative” transportation; it is the only mode that is regularly used by nearly everyone. However short the distance may be to your car, your bike, or to a transit stop, every trip begins and ends with a walk.

What is Walkability?
Describes and measures the connectivity and quality of walkways, footpaths, or sidewalks in cities.
Some aspects are objective, and therefore easily measurable, but others are subjective (Livi and Clifton, 2004)[1]

Based on current literature, the Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO)[2] has defined Walkability as “the extent to which the pedestrian walking network is inviting, connected, and safe for the walker.”

Measuring Walkability

Walkability is measured by connectivity, residential density, land use mix, and retail density factors (L. Frank)

In order to measure Walkability, or how Walkable a geographic area is whether or not the pedestrian system is direct, continuous, safe and secure, and provides for visual interest and amenities.

Calculating Walkable Areas

Walkability Criteria


The extent to which walking is readily available to the consumer as a safe, connected, accessibleand pleasant activity

Transport for London (2004)

A measure of the urban form and the quality andavailability of pedestrian infrastructure within a defined area

Seilo (2004)

The “idea of quantifying the safety anddesirability of the walking routes”

Center for Disease Control (2009)

The extent to which the built environment is walking friendly

 New Zealand Transport Agency (2009)

Neighbourhood walkability (characterized by high density, mixed land use, high connectivity and adequate walk/bike design, e.g. continuous sidewalks)

(Saelens et al., 2003; also see Kinget al., 2003; Franket al., 2005; Hoehneret al., 2005; Krizek& Johnson, 2006)

Additional environmental factors linked to physical activity include the presence of facilities, travel distance, access to programs and facilities, the presence of sidewalks and bike lanes, quality and safety of sidewalks or bike lanes, traffic and other safety features, and the availability of pleasant routes

(Lee & Moudon, 2004; also see de Bourdeaudhuijet al., 2003; Hoehner et al., 2005).

Key elements of neighborhood walkability are proximity and connectivity

Owen N, Leslie E, Salmon J, Fotheringham M. Environmental determinants of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Exer Sport Sci Rev2000; 28:153–8.

Frank LD. Economic determinants of urban form: Resulting trade-offs

between active and sedentary forms of travel. Am J. Prev. Med 2004;27(suppl3):146–53

Randall TA, Baetz BW. Evaluating pedestrian connectivity for suburban sustainability. J Urban Planning Dev 2001;127:1–15

Involves creating zones that represent the area that is accessible within 1km walk distance from a pedestrian’s point of origin

(Urban design indices for walkability (Alfonzo et al , 2008)

 The Relationship of Neighbourhood Built Environment Features and Adult Parents’ Walking






Mixed use

Public space

Windows facing the  street

Street lighting Abandoned buildings

Rundown buildings

Vacant buildings

Graffiti Traffic circles

Undesirable land uses

Sidewalk buffers

Number of lanes

Street width

Block length

Sidewalk width

Kerb bulbouts

Speed bumps/humps


Paving treatment

Street trees

Street furniture

[1] – Livi, Andréa D. and Kelly J. Clifton. “PEDS Audit Protocol.” Kelly J. Clifton. http://www.kellyjclifton.com/PEDS/AuditProtocol.v.2.pdf (accessed September 24, 2009).

[2] – DRAFT MPO Pedestrian Element 6/14/2007

سلام، به عابر-شهر خوش آمدید. اینجا وبگاه شخصی سید محمد مهدی معینی فارغ التحصیل دکترای شهرسازی با گرایش برنامه ریزی شهری از دانشگاه نیوکاسل-انگلستان است. تحصیل و زندگی در شهرهای اروپایی و آمریکای شمالی همراه با بیش از 20سال سابقه کار اجرایی و پژوهشی در مدیریت شهر تهران تجربه ای بس گرانقدر است که امیدوارم بتوانم از این طریق حاصل آنرا به دیگران انتقال دهم.